All traditional beers are divided into ale and lager depending on the fermentation method. But there are several varieties that cannot be attributed to any of these groups. We’ll look at them separately. This is the international classification used in most countries.
Ale is a top-fermented beer harvested at a relatively high temperature (15-25 ° C). It has a high alcohol content and a fruity flavor. Made from barley malt. The most famous representative of ale is porter .
Lager is a bottom-fermented beer. It is harvested at 5-15 ° C, then kept at a temperature close to zero for 20-120 days. During aging, the lager is saturated with carbon dioxide and clarified. At the final stage, the beer is filtered and filled into bottles or barrels. The main raw material is barley malt.
Lager beer is the most popular in the world (80% of sales). Lager includes the best types of beer represented by the brands Amstel, Carlsberg, Budweiser, Becks, Stella Artois, Heineken, Baltika and Obolon.
Lambic is a Belgian beer brewed by spontaneous fermentation. Brewer’s yeast is not added, microorganisms enter the wort from the air. For fermentation, only barrels in which wine was previously stored are suitable.
Barley and non-sprouted wheat grains are used as raw materials. To reduce the bitterness of the drink, lambic hops have been dried for over three years. Fermentation lasts about a week, the resulting beer is aged for several years.
Some breweries mix young lambic with more matured varieties for a variety of flavors. While this variety is very rare in Russia, it is supplied only by the Belgian brewery Grand Cru Bruocsella.
Wheat beer – made on the basis of wheat malt. When it is brewed, the method of after-fermentation in a bottle is used, that is, the drink fully ripens while already in the bottle. In most cases, wheat beer is light hazy in color. But in some breweries it is filtered and even made black. This is a traditional Bavarian summer beer.
There are also hybrid beers, which are a combination of ingredients and brewing technologies, and special beers – beers with different additives. But they have nothing to do with classic brewing.